Solar Power System
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination. Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and solar tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic cells convert light into an electric current using the photovoltaic effect.
Photovoltaics (PV) is the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.
A photovoltaic system converts the sun’s radiation, in the form of light, into usable electricity. It comprises the solar array and the balance of system components. PV systems can be categorized by various aspects, such as grid-connected vs. standalone systems, building-integrated vs. rack-mounted systems, residential vs. utility systems, distributed vs. centralized systems, rooftop vs. ground-mounted systems, tracking vs. fixed-tilt systems, and new constructed vs. retrofitted systems. Other distinctions may include, systems with microinverters vs. central inverter, systems using crystalline silicon vs. thin-film technology, and systems with modules from Chinese vs. European and U.S.-manufacturers.
Many industrialized nations have installed significant solar power capacity into their grids to supplement or provide an alternative to conventional energy sources while an increasing number of less developed nations have turned to solar to reduce dependence on expensive imported fuels. Long-distance transmission allows remote renewable energy resources to displace fossil fuel consumption. Solar power plants use one of two technologies:
– Photovoltaic (PV) systems use solar panels, either on rooftops or in ground-mounted solar farms, converting sunlight directly into electric power.
– Concentrated solar power (CSP, also known as “concentrated solar thermal”) plants use solar thermal energy to make steam, that is thereafter converted into electricity by a turbine.
Off-Grid Solar Power System
Solar panels convert direct sunlight into electrical power due to the photovoltaic effect, generating a direct current (DC). The generated power is stored in the battery system by the battery regulator. Finally, the DC-AC inverter will convert the direct current (DC) from the battery into alternating current (AC), which is used to power every household electrical devices.
With the system working independently from the national power grid, it is widely adopted by many countries. It is commonly used in areas without electricity such as remote islands or mountainous areas, or in areas with unstable electrical supply.
Grid Inter-Tied Solar Power System
Solar panels convert direct sunlight into electrical power due to the photovoltaic effect, generating a direct current (DC). The generated power is stored in the battery system by the battery regulator. Finally, the DC-AC
inverter will convert the direct current (DC) from the battery into alternating current (AC), which is used to power every household electrical devices. With the system working in conjunction with the national power grid, it is widely adopted by many countries. It is commonly used in cities that already have a sufficient power grid but want to minimise cost of production of electricity. Grid inter-tied solar power system will transfer the excess electricity generated by the solar panels to the national power grid. The amount of electrical powered transferred will me measured by a two-way electricity meter and the owner will receive equivalent reimbursement from the government
Wind Power System
Wind power or wind energy is the use of wind to provide mechanical power through wind turbines to turn electric generators and traditionally to do other work, like milling or pumping. Wind power is a sustainable and renewable energy and has a much smaller impact on the environment compared to burning fossil fuels.
Wind farms consist of many individual wind turbines, which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Onshore wind is an inexpensive source of electric power, competitive with or in many places cheaper than coal or gas plants. Onshore wind farms also have an impact on the landscape, as typically they need to be spread over more land than other power stations and need to be built in wild and rural areas, which can lead to “industrialization of the countryside” and habitat loss. Offshore wind is steadier and stronger than on land and offshore farms have less visual impact, but construction and maintenance costs are higher. Small onshore wind farms can feed some energy into the grid or provide electric power to isolated off-grid locations.
Wind is an intermittent energy source, which cannot make electricity nor be dispatched on demand. It also gives variable power, which is consistent from year to year but varies greatly over shorter time scales. Therefore, it must be used together with other electric power sources or storage to give a reliable supply. As the proportion of wind power in a region increases, more conventional power sources are needed to back it up (such as fossil fuel power and nuclear power), and the grid may need to be upgraded.